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Radiant heating is the name given to the heating produced by taking the precedent of the sun heating the earth. In radiant heating, it is not aimed to heat the environment, but to heat the target areas of the rays coming out of the device. The basic working logic of traditional heating methods is to heat the volume of air in the environment. Systems such as central systems and radiator heating systems perform heating by heating the air in the environment. Radiant heaters, on the other hand, heat in a specifically targeted manner and reflect only the required amount of heat to the required person or object.
In radiant heating, infrared radiant heat energy is directed at people or objects in the area. In radiant heating, the ambient air is not heated, only objects or people are heated. The air in the environment is heated by convection from people or objects heated by infrared rays. In this way, the people and objects in the environment are heated first, and eventually, the whole environment is heated by heating the air.
This technique, called thermal radiation, is the name given to the emission of heat energies contained in substances through electromagnetic waves. This radiation is also the basis of radiant heating. In classical or conventional heating systems, heat is spread to the area by convection. This means that heating takes place regardless of the nature of the materials. However, in radiant heating systems, also known as radiant heating systems, heat is transmitted in the form of energy transfer by the theories of radiation wave mechanics.
The basic logic in radiant heating systems is to heat a surface with a high emitting capacity and to provide radiation from this surface. Another principle of radiant heating systems is the use of the flames themselves to provide radiation to utilise the radiation of the flames. In this method, the electromagnetic waves of the flames come into contact with the surfaces of the objects and the heat of the molecules increases with the friction force on the surface where they collide.
Difference between Radiant Heating and Classical Heating Systems
At this point, radiant heating systems are in a very advantageous position compared to conventional heating systems. The first reason for this is that classical heating systems require a boiler room or heat exchange. However, in radiant heating systems, there is no need for a boiler room or heat exchange and heat generation takes place in the radiant system located on the ceiling. This means that there is no need for an additional section.
In addition, it is very difficult to make a homogeneous heating in classical heating systems. Since the whole area is heated in classical heating systems, sometimes a heat difference may occur due to the displacement of hot-cold air. Proximity-distance to the heat source also prevents homogeneous heating. As a matter of fact, in classical heating systems, the temperature difference between ceiling and floor temperatures is 12°C-20°C and this level is quite high. However, radiant heating systems are very homogeneous heating systems as they provide need-oriented and radiant heating. In this way, the difference between ceiling and floor temperatures is also small. In radiant systems, the temperature difference between ceiling and floor temperatures is as low as 4°C-8°C.
In classical heating systems, heat distribution is done by fans. For this reason, coldness is felt during the circulation of the air to be heated in the system. This causes chills in the environment. In addition, with the fans ventilating the dust in the environment, the possibility of dust sticking to the products or everything in the environment increases. However, there is no such issue in radiant heating systems. Because in radiant heating systems, heating is provided by radiation. This means no air circulation. Therefore, there is no possibility of a cold air circulating in the environment or ventilating the dust.
In conventional heating systems, the operation and activation of the heating modules can take up to 2 hours. This means that more time is spent heating the environment before working hours. In radiant heating systems, on the other hand, since this period is 15-30 minutes, time loss is at minimum level.
The operation, maintenance and spare parts costs of conventional heating systems are also quite costly. However, these costs are quite low for radiant heating systems. In addition, a malfunction in conventional heating systems creates the risk of a cold environment by locking the entire system, while in radiant heating systems, heating is provided by independent modules, so the failure of one does not affect the rest of the system.
Finally, classical heating systems are generally designed according to an area and it is very unlikely to be dismantled and transported. There are only a few simple pieces of equipment that can be removed. On the other hand, since the vast majority of radiant heating systems are designed independently of the area, they can be easily moved if the area is changed.
Radiant Heating Types
When it comes to radiant heating, heating devices are divided into two groups depending on their surface temperatures. These are low-density devices and high/medium-density devices. While the surface temperature of low-density devices is between 260°C-815°C, this surface temperature is 815°C and above in high/medium-density devices.
Low-density devices are the most preferred devices for radiant heating systems. Devices containing low-density gas burners provide heating with a pipe with high emissivity on the outer surface. Generally, there is an apparatus called a burner at the beginning of these pipes and a fan at the end. This fan functions as a vacuum pump. Thanks to the burner at the beginning of the pipes, the burning of the gas is provided, while the fan at the end is used to draw these gases and thanks to this circulation, the pipe surface is heated and heating is provided.
Radiant tubes are heated by the energy generated by the combustion of the gas. The heat energy in these heated tubes is first sent directly to the environment to be heated by the radiant heating system. Then, some heat energy is transferred to the reflectors and directed to the area to be heated using these reflectors. While these processes are taking place, the heat on the heated pipe spreads to the environment by convection. Finally, some heat energy beams are reflected from the reflector and return to the tube. Thanks to this cycle, low-intensity radiant heating systems work efficiently.
Such devices are also divided into two groups. The first of these is the devices in which the flame itself provides the radiation. In these devices, heating is provided on the front side using a ceramic-based panel with holes. During this heating, the surface temperature is around 1000°C. High-intensity devices operating with naked flame are well-ventilated due to this high temperature. In addition, this type of device should be used for point or localised heating in large areas rather than narrow areas. These types of devices are generally gas-fired heating devices.
The second group of devices among the high-intensity devices are devices with a heated volume within themselves. In these devices, the temperature of the relevant heated area is approximately 1000°C. These types of devices are generally electrically operated devices and the clearest example is Quartz heating systems. In this system, radiation is provided through a special bulb called a Quartz bulb. In addition, another method in this type of device is that the resistance force passing through a pipe is electrically heated and radiates by taking a light yellow colour. In both types, the amount of intensity is quite high.
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